To Leigh Hunt Esq.
Glory and loveliness have passed away;
For if we wander out in early morn,
No wreathed incense do we see upborne
Into the east, to meet the smiling day:
No crowd of nymphs soft voic’d and young, and gay,
In woven baskets bringing ears of corn,
Roses, and pinks, and violets, to adorn
The shrine of Flora in her early May.
But there are left delights as high as these,
And I shall ever bless my destiny,
That in a time, when under pleasant trees
Pan is no longer sought, I feel a free,
A leafy luxury, seeing I could please
With these poor offerings, a man like thee.
John Keats: Dedicatory Sonnet written in February 1817
This was the first item in his book Poems, by John Keats, which was published around 10 March 1817.
The son of Keats’s former school-teacher Charles Cowden Clarke described how the dedication came to be written:
‘[O]n the evening when the last proof-sheet was brought from the printer, it was accompanied by the information that if a “dedication to the book was intended it must be sent forthwith.” Whereupon he withdrew to a side-table, and in the buzz of a mixed conversation (for there were several friends in the room) he composed and brought to Charles Ollier, the publisher, the Dedication Sonnet to Leigh Hunt. If the original manuscript of that poem — a legitimate sonnet, with every restriction of rhyme and metre — could now be produced, and the time recorded in which it was written, it would be pronounced an extraordinary performance: added to which the non-alteration of a single word in the poem (a circumstance that was noted at the time) claims for it a merit with very rare parallel.’
[Charles and Mary Cowden Clarke Recollections of Writers, 1878, p. 137-8]
On Sunday 9 March 1817, the Government suspended Habeas Corpus.
John Hamilton Reynolds published Keats’s sonnet ‘On first seeing the Elgin Marbles’ in The Champion, with a favourable review of his forthcoming book Poems. Keats wrote to thank him (‘Your kindness affects me so sensibly…’).
Leigh Hunt published the same sonnet in The Examiner, but didn’t get round to reviewing his protégé’s book until June.
For the Elgin Marbles sonnet, see the post for 2 March.
On Tuesday 4 March 1817, Keats wrote this sonnet. He sent it to Benjamin Robert Haydon along with the one he wrote on 2 March.
Keats felt ‘that he had betrayed the sacred trust of Apollo’ when he and Leigh Hunt crowned each other with laurel wreaths (see post for 1 March). Both Keats and Hunt wrote sonnets celebrating the incident. ‘Hunt published them next Spring, thus providing some of the heaviest artillery for the reviewers’ onslaught on himself and Keats.’ [Robert Gittings John Keats. London: Heinemann 1968. 116]
Haydon! forgive me that I cannot speak
Definitively on these mighty things;
Forgive me that I have not Eagle’s wings –
That what I want I know not where to seek;
And think that I would not be over-meek
In rolling out up-followed thunderings,
Even to the steep of Heliconian springs,
Were I of ample strength for such a freak –
Think too, that all those numbers should be thine;
Whose else? In this who touch thy vesture’s hem?
For when men stared at what was most divine
With browless idiotism – o’erwise phlegm –
Thou hadst beheld the Hesperian shine
Of their star in the East, and gone to worship them.
On 3 March 1817, Keats’s appointment as a ‘dresser’ at St Thomas’s Hospital ended.
The Morning Chronicle announced that Keats’s first book of Poems would be published ‘Monday next’, price 6s 6d.
On Sunday 2 March 1817, Haydon took Keats and John Hamilton Reynolds to view the Elgin Marbles. Keats wrote the sonnet ‘On seeing the Elgin Marbles for the first time’.
On Seeing the Elgin Marbles for the first time
My spirit is too weak; mortality
Weighs heavily on me like unwilling sleep,
And each imagined pinnacle and steep
Of godlike hardship tells me I must die
Like a sick eagle looking at the sky.
Yet ’tis a gentle luxury to weep
That I have not the cloudy winds to keep
Fresh for the opening of the morning’s eye.
Such dim-conceived glories of the brain
Bring round the heart an undescribable feud;
So do these wonders a most dizzy pain,
That mingles Grecian grandeur with the rude
Wasting of old Time — with a billowy main,
A sun, a shadow of a magnitude.
The painter Benjamin Robert Haydon had spent years campaigning for the Elgin Marbles to be accepted as genuine Greek antiquities (rather than mere Roman copies, as was thought at the time) and purchased by the nation. Meanwhile they were housed in a temporary gallery. There was intense rivalry between him and Leigh Hunt, both trying to influence Keats’s development as a poet. While Hunt celebrated Keats’s poetic debut by crowning him with a twee laurel crown (see yesterday’s post), Haydon showed him robust classical sculptures.
To celebrate the forthcoming publication of Keats’s first book of Poems, Leigh Hunt crowned him with a laurel wreath. Keats wrote two sonnets about the event. Later, in his embarrassment, he would compose an apologetic ‘Ode to Apollo’.
On Receiving a Laurel Crown from Leigh Hunt
Minutes are flying swiftly, and as yet
Nothing unearthly has enticed my brain
Into a delphic labyrinth — I would fain
Catch an immortal thought to pay the debt
I owe to the kind poet who has set
Upon my ambitious head a glorious gain.
Two bending laurel sprigs — ’tis nearly pain
To be conscious of such a coronet.
Still time is fleeting, and no dream arises
Gorgeous as I would have it; only I see
A trampling down of what the world most prizes,
Turbans and crowns, and blank regality —
And then I run into most wild surmises
Of all the many glories that may be.
Written on the Blank Space of a leaf at the end of
Chaucer’s tale of The Flowre and the Lefe
This pleasant tale is like a little copse:
The honeyed lines so freshly interlace,
To keep the reader in so sweet a place,
So that he here and there full-hearted stops;
And oftentimes he feels the dewy drops
Come cool and suddenly against his face,
And, by the wandering melody may trace
Which way the tender-legged linnet hops.
Oh! what a power has white simplicity!
What mighty power has this gentle story!
I, that do ever feel athirst for glory,
Could at this moment be content to lie
Meekly upon the grass, as those whose sobbings
Were heard of none beside the mournful robins.
John Keats: Sonnet written in February 1817.
Keats had called on Charles Cowden Clarke and found him asleep, with the volume of Chaucer on his lap. Clarke wrote that the sonnet was:
‘an extempore effusion, and without the alteration of a single word.’
It is another example of Keats’s thirst for glory.
On Saturday 15 February 1817, Keats visited Leigh Hunt’s, where the household was in chaos as Elizabeth Kent (Hunt’s sister-in-law — and probably also his lover) had tried to drown herself in one of the Hampstead reservoirs.
After dark vapours have oppress’d our plains
For a long dreary season, comes a day
Born of the gentle South, and clears away
From the sick heavens all unseemly stains.
The anxious month, relieved of its pains,
Takes as a long-lost right the feel of May,
The eye-lids with the passing coolness play,
Like rose-leaves with the drip of summer rains.
And calmest thoughts come round us – as of leaves
Budding – fruit ripening in stillness – autumn suns
Smiling at eve upon the quiet sheaves,–
Sweet Sappho’s cheek, –a sleeping infant’s breath,–
The gradual sand that through an hour-glass runs,–
A woodland rivulet, — a Poet’s death.
John Keats: Sonnet written 31 January 1817. After the terrible weather of 1816 (the ‘year without a summer’) and the political upheaval of the month (the Prince Regent’s coach had been attacked with stones as he was on his way to open parliament a few days before), a sunny winter’s day made him anticipate the summer and autumn — as well as his own death, a topic which he would often dwell on.
On Monday 20 January 1817, Keats dined in Knightsbridge with Horace Smith (1779-1849, a poet and wit who wrote parodies of Wordsworth, Coleridge and Byron). Leigh Hunt, Mrs Hunt, Shelley and Haydon were also present.